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  • 范彬,王洪良,张玉,胡明.化粪池技术在分散污水治理中的应用与发展[J].环境工程学报,2017,11(3):1314-1321.DOI:10.12030/j.cjee.201511112    [点击复制]
  • FAN Bin,WANG Hongliang,ZHANG Yu,HU Ming.Application and development of septic tank technology in decentralized wastewater treatment[J].,2017,11(3):1314-1321.DOI:10.12030/j.cjee.201511112   [点击复制]
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化粪池技术在分散污水治理中的应用与发展
范彬1,2, 王洪良1,2, 张玉1,2, 胡明1,2
0
(1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 住房和城乡建设部农村污水处理技术北方研究中心, 北京 100085;2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
摘要:
化粪池技术简单易行,运行维护要求低,在分散污水处理中有着历史悠久和广泛的应用。介绍了化粪池的产生背景和作用机理,指出了当前传统化粪池在分散污水处理中出现的问题,总结了国内外对化粪池技术的改进和应用,展望了化粪池技术未来应用趋势。提出建议:在常规卫生模式下的乡村分散污水治理中,如规划采用传统化粪池/自然处理系统时,应加强化粪池的设计、安装与运行的管理,使其发挥应有的作用;如规划采用构造型分散污水处理系统时,可取消传统化粪池的设置;如对氮磷没有控制要求,则可以考虑采用强化型的化粪池技术。在构建面向资源化的乡村分散卫生系统中,应着重开发基于粪便收集利用的高效、安全且运行维护简便的就地化粪池技术。
关键词:  化粪池  应用与发展  分散污水治理  现状问题  未来应用
DOI:10.12030/j.cjee.201511112
投稿时间:2015-11-13修订日期:2016-01-29
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2014ZX07204-005-01);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0400806)
Application and development of septic tank technology in decentralized wastewater treatment
FAN Bin1,2, WANG Hongliang1,2, ZHANG Yu1,2, HU Ming1,2
(1. North Research Center for Rural wastewater Treatment Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China;2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)
Abstract:
The technology of septic tanks has a long history and widespread applications in decentralized wastewater treatment because of its simple structure and ease of operation. This article reviews the history and mechanisms of septic tank,tackles questions regarding its application,provides a summary of its development and application and predicts the prospects for its application in future. It is suggested that,in conventional sanitation systems in rural decentralized areas,the management of septic tanks should be strengthened to guarantee its function if the septic tank/natural treatment system were to be adopted. It might be better to discontinue the use of septic tanks if a more appropriate wastewater treatment technology can be adopted,while the enhanced septic tank technology could be adopted if it is not necessary to control the TN and TP. The article suggests strengthening the research and development of the onsite septic tank technology (anaerobic fermentation)with improved efficiency and safety,based on the collection and utilization of excrements,for building a resource-oriented sanitation system for rural decentralized areas.
Key words:  septic tank  development and application  decentralized wastewater treatment  current questions in application  future application