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腐殖质纳米颗粒用于镉污染土壤修复的潜力
Humic nanoparticles for potential remediation of Cd- contaminated soils
投稿时间:2017-11-29  修订日期:2018-01-08
DOI:
中文关键词:    腐殖质  土壤修复  钝化剂  土壤淋洗剂
英文关键词:cadmium  humic substance  soil remediation  adsorbent  soil washing agent
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0200303);国家自然科学基金(41501522);山东省重点研发计划(2016CYJS05A01-1);东莞市第一批引进创新科研团队(2014607101003)收稿日期年-月-日; 录用日期:年-月-日第一作者毕冬雪(1992-),女,硕士研究生,研究方向环保材料及应用。E-mail: dxbi@yic.ac.cn 联系方式 15866459465通讯作者,E-mail: gdyuan@yic.ac.cn联系方式 13864551028
作者单位E-mail
毕冬雪 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所、中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室 dxbi@yic.ac.cn 
邓亚娟 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所、中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室  
孟凡德 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所、中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室  
韦婧 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所、中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室  
王海龙 广东大众农业科技有限公司;广东大众农业科技有限公司  
袁国栋 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所、中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室 gdyuan@yic.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      以风化煤为原料制备的不溶性胡敏酸为吸附剂,对比研究了其对冶炼厂周边污染土壤及人工模拟污染土壤中Cd的钝化效果。再以泥炭为原料,制备水溶性腐殖酸钾为淋洗剂,用于活化、去除上述两种土壤中的Cd。研究结果表明,胡敏酸在砂质的人工模拟污染土壤中钝化效果更好,2%的剂量可使土壤中CaCl2提取态Cd的浓度从0.103减少至0.086 mg.L-1。腐殖酸钾去除土壤Cd的效率随淋洗剂浓度的增加而提高,在10 g.L-1的浓度时,单次淋洗可去除高达38.1% 的Cd。傅里叶红外光谱分析结果表明腐殖酸与Cd反应后形成了羧酸盐。因此,腐殖质纳米颗粒既可以钝化、也可以活化土壤中的Cd,达到修复Cd污染土壤的目的。其关键在于根据钝化或活化的途径选择溶解度适当的腐殖质材料。
英文摘要:
      Humic substances are the most widespread and ubiquitous components of natural organic matter in soil, sediment, peat, and leonardite. Because of their small particle size, large specific surface area, abundant acidic functional groups (e.g., carboxyl groups), and ampholytic-amphiphilic nature, humic substances have a high propensity and large capacity to form stable complexes with heavy metals, which underpins the potential applications of humic substances in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. An insoluble humic acid was produced from alkaline extraction of a leonardite and the subsequent flocculation of the extracted humic substances. It was used in laboratory experiment as an adsorbent to immobilize Cd in a silt-loam soil near a smelting plant and a Cd-spiked and aged sandy-loam soil. In contrast, a soluble peat-derived potassium humate was employed as a bio-surfactant and washing agent to mobilize Cd in, and remove it out of, the contaminated soils. As the dosages of the humic acid added to the soils increased, CaCl2 extractable Cd decreased from 0.103 to 0.086 mg·L-1. The immobilization effect was greater in sandy-loam soil than in silt-loam soil because the former had less amount of clay minerals to adsorb Cd. Similarly, as potassium humate concentrations in washing solution increased the amount of Cd removed from the contaminated soils increased. A single washing removed up to 38.1% of the total Cd in soils. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis and acidic functional group measurement proved that both the humic acid and potassium humate were rich in carboxyl and phenol-OH groups, the sum of which were 3.96 and 6.08 mol·kg-1, respectively. After reacting with Cd, an enhanced symmetrical vibration peak of –COO- at 1379 cm-1 was observed, indicating the formation of Cd-carboxyl complex. These results demonstrate that humic substances have the potential for use in the remediation of Cd-contaminated soils through either an immobilization or mobilization process. The key to the success of the remediation is to select humic substances with suitable solubility: water insoluble humic acid for Cd immobilization and water soluble potassium humate for effective removal of Cd out of soils. In the latter case, critical micelle concentration of potassium humate could be used to determine suitable dosage for effective removal of Cd out of soil.
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