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利用不同组分的原油逐级驯化筛选高效石油烃降解混菌的研究
郑瑾1, 季远玲2,2, 燕纪星3, 王晓玲4, 陈宏坤1, 于文赫1, 杜显元1, 李慧敏5, 周龙涛5, 宋佳宇1
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(1.中国石油集团安全环保技术研究院有限公司;2.大庆油田水务公司;3.中国石油新疆油田公司百口泉采油厂;4.中国地质科学院水文地质与环境地质研究所;5.新疆油田公司工程技术研究院)
摘要:
利用不同组分原油逐级驯化的方法对克拉玛依油田的石油污染土样进行石油烃降解混菌的富集驯化,得到一组对稀油和稠油均具有高效降解能力的混菌M3。与采用单一原油驯化方法相比,M3混菌对稀油和稠油的降解率分别提高了12.5%和22%。该混菌具有较强的产表面活性剂的能力,能够使发酵液的表面张力从69.8 mN?m-1降至27.9 mN?m-1。通过混菌M3的生长条件优化实验得出在温度30℃、pH值7-8、盐度1%、氮源选择尿素的条件下混菌M3对原油的降解率最高。考察混菌M3对污染土壤中原油的降解效果,结果表明,在修复期间土壤脱氢酶呈先升高后降低的趋势。混菌M3使得饱和烃组分增加,芳香分、胶质和沥青质组分降低,对重质组分具有较好的降解效果。混菌M3的加入改变了原油性质,促进了土壤中原油的降解,经过56 d修复,土壤中原油降解率达到55.3%。
关键词:  筛菌  石油烃降解混菌  原油污染土壤  降解率  原油组分
DOI:
投稿时间:2018-07-19修订日期:2019-02-28
基金项目:
Screening of highly effective petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria by demonstration using different components of crude oil step by step
Abstract:
The oil contaminated soil samples collected from Karamay oil field were enriched and domesticated with thin oil and heavy oil of different components successively, and a group of mixed bacteria M3 with high degradation ability for both thin oil and heavy oil was obtained. Compared with the traditional method of enrichment with single crude oil, the degradation rate of M3 mixed bacteria for thin oil and heavy oil increased by 12.5% and 22% respectively. The mixture has a strong ability to produce biological surfactants, and can reduce the surface tension of the solution from 69.8 mN?m-1 to 27.9 mN?m-1. By optimizing the growth conditions of M3, the highest degradation rate of crude oil was obtained under the conditions of temperature 30℃, pH 7-8, salinity 1% and nitrogen source selection of urea. The effect of M3 on the degradation of crude oil in contaminated soil showed that the soil dehydrogenase increased and then decreased during the period of remediation. The addition of mixed bacteria M3 resulted in the change of crude oil properties, in which the saturated hydrocarbon components were increased, aromatic hydrocarbons, colloid and asphaltene components were reduced. The mixed M3 promoted the degradation of crude oil in soil which resulted in the degradation rate of crude oil in the soil reached 55.3% after 56 d remediation.
Key words:  Screening  hydrocarbon degrading bacteria  crude oil contaminated soil  degradation rate  components of crude oil